Ilya Mourometz, I.I.Sikorsky


At the Monino AF Museum near Moscow; Photo (21k) by John Sloan from the Russian Aviation Page by A. Gretchihine.

I
gor Sikorsky built the world's first four-engined aircraft, The Russky Vitaz, in 1913. The Ilya Murometz became a radically improved modification. The first built Ilya Murometz was a purely civil transport, providing exceptional luxirities as no any other aircraft many years ahead:
(53k) Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and United Technologies Corporation Archives;
(42k) Interior of the first Ilya Mouromets. Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and United Technologies Corporation Archives;
  • Spacious cabin for as much as 16 passengers;
  • Six large windows on every side of the cabin
    and 4 smaller round windows on each side in rear cabin (bedroom !);
  • Glazed cabin floor section to amuse passengers;
  • Heating of enclosed compartments provided by inboard engines exhaust gases channeled through radiator pipes;
  • Electric lightning by wind driven generator;
  • Toilet - necessity for record long flights and passenger convenience;
  • Wicker chairs in cabin for comfortable rest of crew and passengers;
Many demonstration flights were performed over the imperial capital and its environs. Unlike pilots of single-engine aircraft, Sikorsky was confident in reliability of multi-engine aircraft. Some flights were performed over city as low as at 400 meters. Every flight by the Ilya Mouromets attracted huge crowds, bringing street traffic to a standstill.
(45k) Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and the K.N.Finne family;
The record flight of Ilya Mouromets took place in June 30 - July 12, 1914. Flight from St.Petersburg to Kiev (1200km wit one refueling stop in Orsha) and back (with refueling in Novo-Soloniki). During flight to Kiev one of engines caught a fire, sprayed with gasoline from broken fuel pipe. It was extinguished in-flight, but landing was made to have it back running and to avoid arrival to Kiev in dark time.
The flight back (13 hours) was performed without accidents, despite the aircraft faced severe turbulence and air pockets up to 500m deep flying over forest fire area. Weather condition sometimes forced crew to fly above the clouds without using ground features.
As the WWI broke out, Murometsy were ordered into production by Ministry of War. German Argus engines became unavailable, and aircraft was re-engined for French Salmson. Those proved to be less useful, and contributed to the negative attitude of military pilots toward the Ilya Mouromets.
Early in the war attempts were made to arm the aircraft with 37mm Hotchkiss or a 3-inch recoilless Gelvig/Oranovsky cannons, as well as to protect pilots with 2mm steal a'la modern-day knights' armour. Most of those efforts were found impractical.
Ilya Mourometz type B with Salmson engines;
44k Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrowand the K.N.Finne family;
31k Ilya Mouromets type B with floats at the Libau naval base, engined by 2 200hp Salmsons and 2 115hp Argus engines, June 1914; Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and United Technologies Corporation Archives;
One Ilya Mouromets was equipped with floats and made several successful flights, but was found of little military significance. All those novel experiments took a considerable amount of time and efforts, but mostly were rejected as impractical.
Another problem was that military pilots - elite of all times - had to re-train to new flying machine in the war emergency under supervision of civilians. This certainly bruised their egos.
For training purposes two-engine IM's were employed. Salmson engine problems and errors of young pilots resulted in few non-fatal crushes. But a tradition came to life to blame all on the Ilya Mouromets.
Dostoevsky once said, "Give a Russian student a map of the heavens and he will submit it to you next day with corrections"... Even this superior aircraft failed under critics of aviators.
(39k) Early Spring IM-6 still on skis, Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and the K.N.Finne family;
Courtesy of Carl J. Bobrow and Harry Woodman;
But quite soon the aircraft found its place as prominent bomber, capable carry as many as 700-800kg of bomb load. Powerful strikes again railroad stations and bridges deep into enemy territory were performed regularly. Raid of a single plane was able to paralyze life at a targeted railroad station for few days.
Many reconnaissance missions were flown hundreds kilometers into enemy territory, photographing depots and regiment movements. Confidence in the aircraft was growing so fast, that it resulted into negligence. Pilots even started to through away defensive machineguns to take more bombs...
The Third Army chief of staff Major General Romanovsky expressed this confidence very clear : "Give me just three Murometsy and take away all the light aeroplane - and I will be satisfied."
Aircraft had internal bomb bay and bombsight to provide precise bombing. Other aircraft of early WWI relied on crew throwing bombs or grenades by hands from the open cockpit, using eyesight for aiming... Numerous machineguns (see below) provided Ilya Mourometz with excellent defence, and it was easy to believe a legend that no one of those giants was shot down.
Indeed, there were 3 cases when the first heavy bomber was shot down. But during service it scored more than 10 air-to-air victories, so it seems right to honor it as The Only Heavy Bomber With Positive Score vs Fighters. And, as usual, plane shooting down Ilya Mourometz received quite a heavy damage. Lucky hunters, I guess, were happy to have their fighters landed safely, as well as to have such a air victory.
Built at RBVZ, production continued after October 1917;
During 1918 only 13 IM were built...
Completing (on RBVZ) of 13 IM was discussed in April 1919 with participation of N.E.Zhukovsky (same 13 as above?).
In May-October 1921 few "Ilya Mouromets" aircraft were used on the passenger line Moscow-Kharkov. Line was closed because aircraft were extremely worn. About 76 flights were performed. This division was retired completely only in May 1923, when giant wooden planes got worn beyond repair.
August 2, 1921 - one IM participated in Air Fleet Day celebration in Moscow;

Technical data of some Ilya Mouromets versions
Type No 107 Kievsky
No 128
Type B
No 135
Type B
No 136-139
Type V
No 151
Type V
No 159
trainer
Type V
No 167
Type G-1 Type G-2
"Russobalt"
Type G-3
"Renobalt"
Type D-I
DIM
Type E
"Yeh-2"
Year 1913 1914 1914 1914 1915 1915 1915 1916 1916 1916 1916 1917
Engines 4*100hp
Argus
2*140hp
Argus
2*125hp
Argus
4*130hp
Argus
2*200hp
Salmson
2*135hp
Salmson
4*140hp
Argus
2*225hp
Sunbeam
4*150hp
RBVZ-6
4*160hp
Sunbeam
4*150hp
RBVZ-6
2*220hp
Renault
2*150hp
RBVZ-6
4*150hp
Sunbeam
4*220hp
Renault
Length
m
22 19 19 19 17.1 17.1 17.5 17.1 17.1 17.1 15.5 18.8
Wing
span
m
32
22
30.95
22.45
30.95
22.45
30.95
22.45
29.8
21.0
20.0
19.2
29.8
21.0
30.87
22.0
30.87
22.0
30.87
22.0
24.9
17.6
34.5
26.6
Wing
area
m2
182 150 150 150 125 120 125 148 159.6 159.6 132 220
Empty
Weight
kg
2800 3040 3100 3600 2950 2800 3500 3800 3800 3800 3150 5000
Fuel/oil
Weight
kg
384 700 700 700 550 400 600 650 600 880 690 1050
Loaded
Weight
kg
5100 4650 4600 4800 4450 3600 5000 5400 5300 5400 4400 7460
Speed
km/h
95 100 105 96 125 105 120 135 115 115 120 130
Climb
to 1000m
min
- 15 13 20 11 - 9 8 - 7.3 - 9.4
Climb
to 2000m
min
- 35 30 70 25 - 20 18 - 17 - 26
Climb
to 3000m
min
- 70 - - - - 45 35 - 44 - 68
Ceiling
m
1500 3000 3000 2000 3700 - 2500 4000 - 3400 2000 3200
Range
km
270 500 520 380 650 - - 500 460 570 480 560
Take-off run,m 300 - - - 220 - - - - 220 700 450
Landing Roll,m 200 - - - 200 - - 300 - 250 350 300

Based on 'Igor Sikorsky - The Russian Years' by K.N.Finne.
More Links...
  • "Ilja Mouromets" at Virtual Aircraft Museum
  • Ilya Mourometz, Sikorsky
  • DOO Flightsimulator page by Oleg Devjatkin;
    Modified August 7, 1996
    by Alexandre Savine;
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