Farman-IV flying (40k) and on the ground (50k) from
"History of aircraft construction in the USSR"
, Vol.1 p.142;
The most widely used and popular 'Farman' in Russia
during 1909-1916. Hundreds of
Russian aviators made their first flight on Farman-IV.
Only few Farman-IV's were purchased in France. But many hundreds were built at various workshops and factories, ranging from
homebuilts to large batches from 'Dux' and other serious manufacturers. As a result total
number of built aircraft and its modifications are unaccountable. Most of them were powered by 50hp
Description provided by prof.N.A.Rynin: 3-strut biplane with tail frame. Engine is mounted on the lower wing, driving pusher
propeller. Ailerons had only lower control cables and were hanging down while aircraft is in rest. Aircraft is built of wooden
elements, connected by very basic joints and enforced by bracing wires.
Wing was covered with fabric only from below. As a result wing had 'not an airfoil but something unimaginable', as pilots
giggled. But it was fine, thanks to very small wing load.
The most common modification of F-4 included two-side fabric cover on the wing and ribs with more advanced airfoil. Those
basic improvements, first performed by Russian aviators, allowed pilot M.A.Gaber-Vlynskij to set several ceiling records
(April 13, 1913) :
pilot with 5 passengers - 1120m
pilot with 4 passengers - 1350m
pilot alone - 3000m
Some Russian Farman-IV's were built of bamboo instead of pine. During winter season wheels were replaced by skis.
Aircraft was not used for military purposes.
Farman-IV by 'Dux' factory had substantially increased wingspan, single rudder, landing
skis were much longer (like on Farman-III). Wing airfoil was not revised, but cover was on both sides.
This aircraft was built in series under supervision of engineer V.V.Bartoshevich.
'Farman' by French aviator Christians (?) was presented on the First Petersburg Aviation Week in
1910. It differed by additional small wheels on forward-extended skis. Aircraft
was purchased by the Military Department as a trainer for Gatchina Aviation School. Speed was 57km/h.
'Farman-IV' with 60hp liquid-cooled ENV engine was flown in the School of Turkestan Aviation Society by Shavrov,
officer of the Central Headquarters. It was the first aircraft built by 'Dux' factory.
Few were built in 1910 with 55hp l.c.
'Novgorod The Great' - built at Novgorod section of the Russian Aeroclub. Had 2-side wing and tailplane/elevator cover, lower
wing had smaller than usual size.
'Farman-IV' by A.K.Tikhomirov was built in Moscow, 1912. Trainer with
switchable second set of controls.
'Farman-IV' of Odessa Naval Battalion was built in April 1911. Upper wing was
larger than lower one and supported by upper kingpost. One of Odessa Farmans was flown by aviator S.Utochkin (1876-1916).
'Farman-IV' by B.S.Maslennikov was built in 1911 for flight Petersburg-Moscow.
Differed by pinpointed nose shell, covering controls and pilot's legs.
'Farman-Aviata' was built in
Warsaw by Aviata Enterprise. 60hp Argus engine provided speed up to
80km/h. Struts were replaced by upper kingposts, landing skis extended forward, lower wing is smaller than usual. Few
were accepted by Military Department. Note that at the time Poland was part of Russia.
'Farman-IV' by A.V.Shiukov had pilot's seat moved 1.5 forward. Front elevator was
removed. Performance was not harmed.
German built 'Farman-Albatros' with minor changes in upper wing design served in Gatchina Aviator School near St.Petersburg.
'Farman-Bristol' aka 'Farman-V'
'Farman Militer' was almost identical to Farman-IV. Few obtained by Russia in
"History of aircraft construction in the USSR" by
V.B.Shavrov, Vol.1 p.140-143;