TSh-3, TsKB-4 S.A.Kocherigin and M.I.Gurevich


H
eavy armored ground attack monoplane aircraft, built following the TTKh of the VVS command. Monoplane scheme was chosen by S.A.Kocherigin (head of attack aircraft brigade at the TsKB) after TSH-1 and TSH-2 failed satisfy the requirements and biplane solutions became obviously obsolete.
Airforce requirements included speed of 250km/h and ceiling 4000m. Aircraft had to carry strong armament in different combinations.
TSh-3 was built of metal and fabric. Front fuselage was a steel armour box held together by duralumin profiles frame. Front armour plate was 8mm thick. Side, bottom and back plates: 6mm, top plate: 5mm. Engine was not protected from the top. Retractable underfuselage radiator was protected by 6mm armour too. In the retracted ('attack') position cooling air was sucked in through the armored 'scoop' intake under the propeller, fraction of the heat also was absorbed by 106kg of water in the cooling system. Specially for this purpose radiator was made with oversize.
Tail section (behind the gunner's turret) was simple steel tube frame covered with fabric. It provided less than 10% of the airframe weight (55kg). Wing had duralumin frame and fabric cover. Each wing carried five ShKAS machineguns and three cartridges for six small shrapnel bombs each. Hardpoints were integrated into wing structure and could carry heavy bombs and Special Aircraft Mounted Devices (stays for chemical agent dispensers). Ailerons served also as a flaps.
TSh-3 was flown in 1932 by V.K.Kokkinaki. Performance was well above requirements of 1932. But... Trials and refinements continued until Spring 1934. Fast progress of aircraft designs made speed 250km/h already insufficient. Angular shape of the armour shell was the major obstacle.
The main purpose of the armored attacker was not well defined yet, and TSh-3 did not enter series production.
It took almost 8 years before Ilyushin's Il-2 emerged as an fully operational heavy armored aircraft with exceptional performance.

ReferencesLinks
  • "History of aircraft construction in the USSR" by V.B.Shavrov, Vol.1 p.341-342;
  • None found...
    Technical data
    Type TSh-3, TsKB-4
    Function Ground attack
    Year 1933
    Crew 2
    Engines 1*750/830hp M-34F
    Length 10.75m
    Wingspan 16.5m
    Wing area 45.04m2
    Empty weight 2665kg
    Loaded weight 3557kg
    Wing load 79.5kg/m2
    Power load 4.7kg/hp
    Speed at 0m 247km/h
    Speed at 1000m243km/h
    Landing Speed 95km/h
    Range 470km
    Flight Endurance 2h30min
    Ceiling 5800m
    Climb
    3000m 10.7min
    Armament
    Guns 11*7.62mm ShKAS
    Bombs ? assorted
    Created January 25, 1996
    Modified April 01, 1998
    by Alexandre Savine
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